Free Available Chlorine (FAC) – Biofilm literally laughs at it – Chlorine Dioxide deals to it. Welcome to 21st century Drinking Water Disinfection

About the author. Authors note:  You may also like to read my permanent Drinkable Water page. This webpage is intended to empower the reader with 21st century Drinking Water Disinfection SCIENTIFIC knowledge. This page has been prepared with the assistance of some amazing water disinfection mentors. Undiscovered leaders in their respective NZ fields. The initial intention was just to highlight the operational juggling act – that is FAC. Then – as I attracted more mentors the scope became wider to include the huge developing science of biofilm. Subsequently  becoming  much wider – following the science relating to biofilm control. Which ended full circle – with the absolutely-marvellous set-and-forget disinfectant that has protected the Sisson family house-hold-drinking-water for the past three years – chlorine dioxide. The disinfectant shamefully ignored by the MoH and their minions – plus Water NZ. Welcome to about two weeks worth of reading – that we have prepared – to empower-the-public.

February 8th 2019 update. The newly discovered science shows what we are up against.

Proven – bacteria take secure refuge within their own city biofilm! The majority unharmed by chlorination or antibiotics.

July 2018

  • 1/   The MoH and the NON-PROFIT Water NZ’ belief that biofilm is ‘slime’. (mid 20th century mindset)
  • 2/   The reluctance of the MoH to accept that genuine chlorine dioxide can be purchased on TradeMe, (Mid 20th Century mindset)
  • 3/   The needless misery experienced in numerous NZ towns – as appalling ignorance to 21st century advances – are ignored. (mid 20th century mindset)
  • 4/   I believe that FAC is – correctly used at low rates – to protect CLEAN reticulation systems from reinfection – is absolutely marvellous. FAC – incorrectly used – in light of 21st century scientific organic-matter carcinogenic reports – is a health hazard. Depending always – on the level of training of the operator. As mentioned below – FAC and chlorine dioxide – dosed in parallel  – create a disinfectant ‘weapon’ – greater than the sum of the parts.
  • 5/  The Ministry of Health still deal with Legionella outbreaks using chlorine. (late 20th century disastrous mindset)
  • 6/   The Ministry of Health are unable to supply safe drinking water within a hospital owned by the Ministry of Health. (2017 asleep-at-the-wheel)
  • 7/   The key player in the developing 21st century science of Biofilm study is Montana State University. Followed by the US EPA.
  • 8/   Sisson Kayaks is also a NON PROFIT organisation. The company was delisted in 2010. The SK website exists mainly to supply kayak spare parts from the huge privately-owned residual stocks.
  • 9/   The writer has the receipts to show that all Dutrion and Alphasan disinfectant, testing equipment, dose pump were all paid for at list price. No free tickets to sporting events or concerts. No free ski trips to Cardrona for Mergatroid and Charlotte. I must surely be a failed negotiator – nothing – zilch. I do this for better ‘outcomes’ (the Gangster’s TV interview word) for others.
10/    We had the HNDW Inquiry – which confirmed ‘systemic disfunction’ including all of the above bulleted items. We – the NZ public need to guard against ‘The re-arrangement of the deck chairs on the Titanic’. As the ‘NON-PROFOT Water NZ are now doing. Water NZ never state the science. They ‘wheel-out-‘experts’ in deck-chair re-arrangement. My mentors and I encourage the reader – to read all of the science contained in the links on this page. I have NEVER experienced something this bad – ever before.

11/   New Zealanders deserve a ‘Ministry for Drinking Water’. Headed up by a successful businessman – who has NEVER settled for less – than saving lives.

12/   “There are two great 20th Century inventions that have promoted longer human lifespans – antibiotics and chlorination of drinking water” (Nick Hewer Hewitt)

13/   “Chlorine dioxide will become as important to the world
in the next 20 years in the same way that
chlorine was important for the last 100 years.” (Dutrion chemist)

14/   “Other options (to chlorine) include using UV and ozone as alternative treatments, though they are expensive”. (Helen Beaumont, head of the Christchurch City Council’s water supply improvement programme and its top strategist)      totally ignoring the 21st century global availability of chlorine dioxide)
“An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”

 15/   “Let’s ignore the wonderful affordable 21st century chlorine dioxide – the big-business cashflow destroyer.” (Resulting in cheaper safer reliable disinfected water for the drinker – but then – who is  really worried about the drinker?)  (I am – Grahame Sisson) 
“An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”

16/   “The fact that recognition of the importance of the biofilm phenomenon is so recent continues to have ramifications on education, health, and industry. Biofilm topics are still rarely covered in key university curricula, such as microbiology, biology, environmental science, health, medicine, and dentistry.” (Montana State University)

17/a    “This study shows that the reaction rate of chlorine with cellular biomass is fast enough that diffusion of this disinfectant into the biofilm readily becomes rate limiting. This reaction−diffusion interaction affords an excellent explanation for the poor efficacy of chlorine when used against biofilm microorganisms.” (Montana State University)

17/b      C.T Value (CONCENTRATION of disinfectant – to –  microbe exposure TIME). C.T Values are an important part of calculating disinfectant dosage for the chlorination of drinking water. A C.T value is the product of the concentration of a disinfectant (e.g. free chlorine) and the contact time with the water being disinfected. … The goal of disinfection is the inactivation of microorganisms … (Wikipedia) Christchurch is bore-to-reticulation, Short time requires a CONCENTRATED disinfectant dose. Christchurch lacks water storage that would increase the TIME value – and reduce the disinfectant CONCENTRATION.

18/  The full catastrophe relating to MoH selection of Water Disinfectants can best be highlighted by the study of recent 21st century papers pertaining to the control of Legionella.

19/   “Other oxidising biocides have the potential for use in cooling tower systems but have been used to a very limited extent. One example is chlorine dioxide. The technical difficulties associated with its production and control on-site are factors which restrict its use.” 2012!  The Prevention of Legionellosis in New Zealand Guidelines for the Control of Legionella Bacteria Revised by the Ministry of Health Illness October 2012 

(21st century bullshit – Grahame Sisson)

“An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”

20/   “The amoeba survived for three hours in a chlorine dose of 20 mg/L, up to 40 times the WHO’s recommended concentration for drinking water systems. “This suggests that the biofilm on the pipe wall physically prevents the penetration of chlorine,” Puzon says. “Brain-Eating Amoeba” Scoffs At Chlorine In Water Pipes. Web Date: September 2, 2015 Chemical and Engineering News

21/   “Chlorine dioxide was the least expensive procedure followed by thermal shock, hyperchlorination, boiler and filter. We suggest adopting chlorine dioxide and electric boilers in parallel.” Effectiveness of different methods to control legionella in the water supply: ten-year experience in an Italian university hospital – 2009
(Enlightened 21st century reality – Grahame Sisson)

22/   Biofilm – another 21st century topic that the MoH have-no-idea-about. They – and Water NZ members remove “slime” using unsuitable ineffective chlorine.

23/   “Chlorine dioxide, applied as a continuous treatment, was identified in this study as the most efficient for controlling L. pneumophila in a domestic water system. Chlorine dioxide showed a longer residual activity, leading to improved performance in the dead leg. Amoebae resisted to all the treatments applied and probably acted as reservoirs for L. pneumophila, allowing a quick re-colonization of the system once the treatments were interrupted”.  Amoebae in domestic water systems: resistance to disinfection treatments and implication in Legionella persistence.
US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

24/   Since about 2005 biofilm encrusted cooling-tower owners world-wide have simply added a BASF or Dutrion chlorine dioxide tablet to the water – once per month! Now – back back to 21st century Drinking Water disinfection.

25/   “Given the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide on the bench scale, this disinfectant and other alternative disinfectants should be explored. Ozone and peracetic acid are good candidates for study as are peroxide, acidified nitrite, monochloramine and mixed oxidants.” (Ancient 2014 EPA United States) ‘Decontamination of Drinking Water Infrastructure A Literature Review and Summary.’

26/   Off topic. Of particular interest to the Minister of Health – The true source of catheter infection. And some ‘Super-bug’ resistance. Read about the developing Medical Biofilm scientific discovery here – at Sisson Kayaks.
Final word on a 2017 medical biofilm breakthrough

27/   “Nothing would make me happier than coming-out-of-retirement to head up your restructure team. I could fire 500 Drinking Water minions nation-wide – and the water quality would be just as bad – but get no worse! Simply because these minions – do nothing!” (Anon – hacked intercepted email sent to the Minister of Health)
“An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”

28/   “System operators must maintain a personal sense of responsibility and dedication to providing consumers with safe water, and should never ignore a consumer complaint about water quality.” MoH Guidelines to the Drinking Water Standards NZ 2008 – page 47 (Applies to all others – MoH exempted – GrahameSpeechless)

29/   The human Immune System

Click here for the full report. Everyone should read this. Why the very young and very old need disinfected water. Nick Hewer Hewett was 100% correct. I am on a ‘slippery slope’!

30/   Disinfectants – choices

Throughout the Drinking Water Standards for New Zealand (DWSNZ), the Ministry of Health list many disinfectants – together with their use – in theory. Chlorine, Ozone, Ultra Violet and Chlorine Dioxide.

Chlorine is the one-to-hate – so firstly lets examine (click here) this Water NZ Update 5  – dated November 2016. When I was learning chlorine dosing for the Anakiwa Bay Water Supply Society Inc (ABWSS), I could locate zero chlorination instruction within NZ. I accessed excellent World Health Organisation papers – written in the UK – aimed at developing countries. I also recruited a highly experienced mentor.

31/   In Drinking Water terms – as clearly stated in the Havelock North Drinking Water Inquiry Report – New Zealand is in a shameful time zone. We seem to lack enlightened Drinking Water forward progress – our time zone is about 1955. Chlorine chlorine and more chlorine – “Oh its getting gobbled up – and not working – that’s strange – never had that before”. “Increase the dose”  “Let them eat cake drink swimming pool water” “Panic panic – lets chuck in a couple of those cheap $22,000 cryptosporidium filters”. “Lets not chase the operators for  their Water-Sample-Tests – hey – the huge E Coli results may interfere with my sleep”

32/   The lack of enlightenment is sickening. “Take care with your voyage – you may fall off the edge of the world” I exaggerate just a smidgin!

33/  Before bounding further forward – lets go back to that Water NZ Update 5 – and read it twice. Dose-loading, organic-load, C.t Value, sedimentation, temperature, pH acidity, tank lid seal and wildlife intrusion. Hmmmmm. This is more an ART than a Science. A full time job for a highly experienced operator. Its a juggling act.

How I felt when I ran the ABWSS dose pump.

34/   Correctly administered – chlorination is a clever invention. Sightly over-dose the water with Hypochlorite (liquid chlorine) and the water itself RE-MANUFACTURES the residue into another (better for long-run reticulation) acidic chemical.

Please click here to read the science (chemistry – I failed)

Free and combined chlorine – understand the difference

Pure chlorine exists as a molecule as a gas (Cl2 ) and when dissolved in water it will react with water to form mostly hypochlorous acid (HOCl):
Cl2 + H2O ↔ HCl + HOCl
Depending on the pH of the water (see image below), the hypochlorous acid (HOCl) will partially dissociate to the hypochlorite ion (OCl-). Both hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite disinfect water but hypochlorous is acid is a more effective disinfectant.

Confused? I am. pH has huge effect.

35/   Chicane #1

Only a true PRACTICAL professional – with years of hands-on day-to-day PRACTICAL experience will develop ‘a-feel’ for FAC success. Full appreciation of CONCENTRATION (of disinfectant) TIME (exposure time of that disinfectant to specified organism) C.t Value, Litmus paper is essential. Thermometer is essential. Such people – who can establish – then maintain FAC – at the required ml / litre are in very short supply. They do NOT teach this skill at university. The graduates employed by the MoH – and their contracted minions – ‘learn’ FAC ‘skills’ by watching a skilled operator.

Calculating and Reporting of C.T Values
for Ground Water Treatment Systems
Not Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water
Click image to read. Should be compulsory reading for those dosing Christchurch

In the absence of skilled operators – maybe the safest way is to elevate the dose loading. Some media reports talk of swim pool Pelintest loadings. The same DPB tablet is used for swimming pool water and Drinking Water chlorine load testing. There are different model Palin colour-comparator for both jobs. The swimming pool ones are in stock everywhere. The Drinking Water ones are impossible to purchase. Free enterprise stocking based on stock-turn.  Its a shambles. Hmmmmmmm.

From the above Florida Ct Value paper

In the case of Havelock North and Christchurch, storage is never mentioned. If storage allowed a longer time, the Ct Value would indicate a diluted dose. In the absence of storage the Ct Value would demand a stronger FAC dose. Yuck! The Christchurch reticulation IS the storage.

36/   Chicane#2

Regardless of how ‘PURE’ the source water is – if the reticulation pipe interiors are coated with slime (biofilm) – reinfection will occur. The downfall of UV is because UV has zero residual disinfection.

University of Glasgow Title Image from biofilm link below.

Think of the biofilm as a coral reef. A community of life. It is your ‘lucky dip’ as to the nastiness of the infectious critters living within your pipes. Click here to obtain the science and a few horrible magnified images. Click here to watch a very interesting video which explains the mechanism resulting in Legionella. Or maybe check out this Montana University paper.

Credit Montana State University – As I suspected – this is a recent developing science – kicked off in 1990 – and unresolved now. Hence the annual conferences.

Click here to read this very interesting Montana State University 3 page paper.

Click on the image to watch the video. I have seen NZ Mainstream Media reports of Legionella being ‘controlled’ using (sigh) chlorine, chlorine, chlorine chlorine and more chlorine. Fail!  Click here for the science – A Ct value 40 times greater than used to control E Coli – perhaps – may do the job. Dutrion and BASF Aseptrol chorine dioxide tablets (MoH “Chemical Concoction”) were created to allow easy-once-monthly (legally recordable) disinfection of the water in air conditioner cooling towers. Thus – in an enlightened flick-of-the-wrist manner – controlling Legioneers Disease – forever.

Click on the image to read the 2015 article

Never overlook this

37/   The DWSNZ does not mention biofilm. The DWSNZ Guidelines mentions biofilm 60 times – in 21st century modern context. With this awareness – how can the globally accepted 21st century biofilm disinfectant – chlorine dioxide – not be accepted. It is a mystery. Is there an agenda?             “An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”

38/   Chicane #3

As a wonderful 20th century invention, FAC is far from perfect in the 21st century. Our source waters in no way resemble 1950’s source waters. There are better 21st Century products available – but the Ministry of Health have their blinkers firmly fitted

Possibly a Ministry of Health staff member charged with the evaluation of alternate drinking water disinfectants. Chlorine Dioxide excluded.                           “An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”

as you can see. The DWSNZ (law) mentions (click here) chlorine dioxide (which contains zero chlorine) alongside the other disinfectants. In the 20th century chlorine dioxide had to be generated on-site – and used immediately. The plants tended to self-deconstruct (blow up) Click here to see how. In the 21st century

some clever chemists have discovered how to generate the chlorine dioxide GAS – and immediately ENTRAIN the gas within pure water – or into a dissolvable tablet form – such as Dutrion.or BASF Aseptrol or Twin Oxide

39/   2012!!!!!!!!  “Other oxidising biocides have the potential for use in cooling tower systems but have been used to a very limited extent. One example is chlorine dioxide. The technical difficulties associated with its production and control on-site are factors which restrict its use.” 2012!!!!!! (21st century bullshit  lies published by the Ministry of Health Illness – Grahame Sisson)

Click the image to hear the 21st century facts. If you happen to hate chlorine – this video is a must-watch.

40/   I personally agree with Nick Hewer Hewitt. Chlorine is wonderful. Amazing. Saved multiple millions of lives. But in the hands of those-with-all-the-answers (Socrates) – inappropriately used in an unenlightened manner chlorine becomes a major health hazard.

41/   One PURE chlorine dioxide aqueous-solution (click here) product is manufactured 300 metres from the NMDHB Public Health Service office in Richmond, Nelson. Sonya Briggs office.

Miracle water disinfectant – yet to be recognised by MoH. So safe it can be couriered.

I have struggled for almost three years to introduce Warwick Ivory, the ALPHASAN® manufacturer to David Ogilvie, a Ministry of Health scientist. Via the manager of the NMDHB PHS manager, Sonya Briggs – who requested the initial report – mentioned below.

42/   Click the image to read the article. “System operators must maintain a personal sense of responsibility and dedication to providing consumers with safe water, and should never ignore a consumer complaint about water quality.” MoH Guidelines to the Drinking Water Standards NZ 2008 – page 47. Applies to all others! Typical conversation halts after the receipt of SILENCE. Just another GANG. Wording on their patch – “It will Never Happen Again” “It will Never Happen again” “It will Never Happen Again” “It will Never Happen”  “It will Never Happen Again”. Calm down Socrates!

43/    It has never happened. The email strings are huge. The official MoH line seems to be that Alphasan is a “chemical concoction” – and it is. Simply because David Ogilvie from the MoH evaluated a sub-standard American disinfectant – of the same brand name. Not the NZ product manufactured by Alpha Environmental Ltd in Richmond, Nelson. I have David Ogilvie’s erroneous report on file. No matter that David Ogilvie’s report made me the laughing stock of the members of ABWSS Inc! The Ministry of Health Illness appears to be staffed by overpaid unresponsive people who will NEVER retract an error.

Sometimes it’s hard being Grahame. Dealing with those who can not listen – because their head is in the sand. The MoH scientific report states that I was a gullible fool. Would you agree Sonya? “An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”

44/    The Guidelines to the Drinking Water Standards NZ are quite clear about communication between all involved. From page 47.

  1. “System operators must maintain a personal sense of responsibility and dedication to providing consumers with safe water, and should never ignore a consumer complaint about water quality.”

David Ogilvie – please read this quote from a simple man. Your three years old scientific report is very very DAMAGING to MY reputation.

45/   Please please click here to view a video presentation of the advantages of chlorine dioxide

46/   Socrates seems to be saying that those-with-all-the-answers – who know nothing of 21st century biofilm removal – are using the incorrect disinfectant in Christchurch. In his email to me – from his Montana State University chair, Socrates sent me the link to this………..WOW!  ‘This study shows that the reaction rate of chlorine with cellular biomass is fast enough that diffusion of this disinfectant into the biofilm readily becomes rate limiting. This reaction−diffusion interaction affords an excellent explanation for the poor efficacy of chlorine when used against biofilm microorganisms.’ 

The retarded penetration of chlorine into artificial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in agarose gel slabs was investigated experimentally and shown to be consistent with an unsteady reaction−diffusion model. A chlorine microelectrode was used to measure transient chlorine concentration profiles in artificial biofilms in a flow cell. While chlorine penetrated relatively quickly into pure agarose films (∼15 min), its penetration into biofilms was greatly retarded when cells were present. The degree of retardation was proportional to the initial cell density in the biofilm. After 3 h of treatment with a flowing chlorine solution, the chlorine concentration at the substratum under a 526 μm thick biofilm containing 14 400 mg L-1 cell mass had only risen to 10% of the bulk solution value. A mathematical model of the transient reaction−diffusion interaction correctly captured the qualitative behavior of experimentally measured chlorine concentration profiles. Parameter values for the simulations were obtained from the literature and from independent investigations of biomass−chlorine reactions using well-mixed suspensions. Kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients for the reactions of agarose and cell mass with chlorine were obtained by fitting a simple first-order (in both reactants) kinetic model to chlorine versus time data. The reaction rate coefficient for chlorine−cell reaction (1.1 × 10-3 L mg-1 s-1) exceeded that of chlorine−agarose reaction (3.7 × 10-6 L mg-1 s-1) by 2 orders of magnitude. The yield coefficient relating the amount of cell mass consumed to the amount of chlorine consumed ranged from 0.6 to 4.3 mg mg-1, depending on the duration of the experiment. This study shows that the reaction rate of chlorine with cellular biomass is fast enough that diffusion of this disinfectant into the biofilm readily becomes rate limiting. This reaction−diffusion interaction affords an excellent explanation for the poor efficacy of chlorine when used against biofilm microorganisms.
Diffusion of Chlorine Dioxide Through Aqueous and Oil Films
Food and Bioproducts Processing 2006 84, 346-352
Chlorine dioxide disinfection of single and dual species biofilms, detached biofilm and planktonic cells
Sabrina Behnke, Anne K. Camper
Biofouling 2012 28 (6), 635-647
Efficacy of Chlorine Dioxide as a Disinfectant for Bacillus Spores in Drinking-Water Biofilms
Ahmed A. Hosni, Jeffery G. Szabo, Paul L. Bishop
Journal of Environmental Engineering 2011 137, 569-574
Bactericidal and sporicidal performance of a polymer-encapsulated chlorine dioxide-coated surface
W.K. Leung, A.P.S. Lau, K.L. Yeung
Journal of Applied Microbiology 2009 106 (10.1111/jam.2009.106.issue-5), 1463-1472

46/   Is the Ministry of Health policy based on David Ogilvie’s erroneous opinion?

48/   Huge Asian chlorine dioxide production. Take your pick! Asia makes it to use it. And we should say – aren’t we lucky – we can buy it to use ourselves. But those-with-all-the-answers (Socrates) state that these are “chemical concoctions – not chlorine dioxide gas.” Hahahaha………..

49/   Meanwhile things are looking good in this 2017 paper from the USA

Click on the image to read the story of enlightenment

Click on the image to read the Report. How Israel produces safe drinking water from waste water. Absolutely essential, enlightened reading for those who plan safer Drinking Water. I do believe – chlorine dioxide – gets a mention!

50/   When I discussed my own private in-house Alphasan water disinfection with Nick Hewer Hewett (who I greatly admire) he replied that there was no easy way to monitor the dose levels.

Oh yes there is! 21st century electronics

Nick also questioned the dreaded chlorite. I have Hill Laboratories test sheets that

  • Prove that Alphasan IS 100% pure chlorine dioxide
  • Show zero chlorite as supplied from manufacturer
  • Show zero chlorite in a test taken from my kitchen tap

My frustration can only be calmed by twice daily watching (click here) this YouTube  video. Whilst knowing that my winter solar hot water cylinder (ideal temperature to breed legionella) will be strongly disinfected – with zero biofilm formation. Utopia.

“An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”

51/    Chicane #4

Biofilm – as I write this – is a huge developing science.

The 2017 edition of the International Biofilm Summit
was a tremendous success!
Thank you to all participants. See you in 2019!

Click here to go to the above website. Did NZ attend?

Maybe – One mention of the words ‘Biofilm’ or ‘dioxide’ at the conference surely induced this effect.

52/     Chicane #5

FAC controls reticulation biofilm – but ONLY the surface of the ‘coral’ community. The moment the plant operator stops juggling (recall that from above) – and the FAC is diminished – the reticulation re-infection is immediate. Faster than the speed of light>>>>>.

Chlorine dioxide – because it is a gas – is capable of penetrating the whole biofilm. (assuming the correct Ct value (Concentration Time)) The chorine dioxide will kill ALL of the biofilm.

Note at the top.
Scholarly articles.
Science. Now some actual practical examples of reality. 200 litres of dead microbes

100 litres of dismantled ‘Microbe City’ Click here to view a video showing typical reticulation ‘microbe-city’ – laughing at us.

Click the image to read the article. Napier City Council ratepayer (suffering massive skin ailments is told – “Napier City Council said at the time this was due to bringing two bores urgently online, resulting in water going through different sections of the network”, “which in turn dislodged some sediment”. Bullshit! This is partly biofilm – full of infectious critters including amoebae harbouring live legionella bacteria. “Let them eat cake” is the traditional translation of the French phrase “Qu’ils mangent de la brioche”, supposedly spoken by “a great princess” upon learning that the peasants had no bread. Since brioche was a luxury bread enriched with butter and eggs, the quote would reflect the princess’s disregard for the peasants, or her poor understanding of their situation. “Let them eat cake drink muck”

Credit Montana State University. These guys just laugh at chlorine – but the MoH have yet to catch up with the 21st century research. Media reports suggest that they ‘increase the chlorine ppm dose’. Futile. Misery.

Scientific fact – Biofilm critters communicate. Laughter is still being investigated. My bet is yes. Credit Montana State University.

The other half of the cut-in-half 200 litre drum. Another 100 litres of dead biofilm – flushed from the water reticulation within a seed raising farm. Photo credit Warwick Ivory. (Who else in NZ is capable of such microbe-city deconstruction?) And when Warwick offered assistance in Havelock North they (effectively) slammed the phone down. Shameful ignorant behaviour against a very gentle man.

200 litres purged instantly in one flush – by Warwick Ivory the Alphasan manufacturer

“An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”

To the extent that 100% of the biofilm can all be totally flushed from the system. ALL of it. An alternate drinking water source is needed during this process. When my home pipes were being stripped – I forgot one morning. Crunchy crunchy – just like coral would be.

Let me assure to reader – this is NOT a new source of protein – in an ever hungry planet. Click the image to watch the video.

53/    Chicane #6

How does this all apply to the Christchurch chlorination experience of hideous taste and sickening smell? FAC at the correct dose rate has zero taste or smell. Should that FAC be expected to ‘work’ – the by-products will be grit, taste and smell. Within this article there would seem to be an admission that the “pure ChCh bore water” has attracted bacteria from the reticulation biofilm.

54/   And now lets look at the work of a much-lesser Drinking Water administrator than the MoH – and their minions.

EPA/600/R-13/156 | May 2014 |

Decontamination of Drinking Water Infrastructure A Literature Review and Summary. Excerpts below.

Other BAR studies used iron, cement-mortar, and PVC coupons that are representative of water distribution mains currently in service [47]. Free chlorine concentration up to 70 mg/L resulted in 3-log removal of B. globigii spores, but persistence was still observed [48]. Application of chlorine dioxide to the same reactor/coupon set-up resulted in 4-log inactivation of adhered B. globigii over the course of 4 days [49]. Application of 5 mg/L free chlorine resulted in 2 to 4-log removal of B. globigii attached to cement-mortar coupons, with no detectable spores remaining [50].
Alternative disinfectants such as chlorine dioxide have also proven to be effective at decontaminating adhered spores without germination enhancement. Therefore, germination with a chemical suited for the Bacillus species followed by chlorination at least 25 mg/L and introduction of clean water moving at a velocity of at least 1 ft/sec is more effective than chlorination or flushing alone. Alternatively, application of at least 25 mg/L chlorine dioxide is more effective than chlorination at that level in bench scale applications.
Future Biological Agent Research Spore-Forming Bacteria: Given the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide on the bench scale, this disinfectant and other alternative disinfectants should be explored. Ozone and peracetic acid are good candidates for study as are peroxide, acidified nitrite, monochloramine and mixed oxidants.
Techniques such as germinating spores before chlorination or using an alternative disinfectant such as chlorine dioxide have shown promise.
49. Hosni, A.A., J.G. Szabo, and P.L. Bishop, The efficacy of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant for Bacillus spores in drinking water biofilms. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2011.
81. Sproul, O.J., et al., Comparison of chlorine and chlorine dioxide for the inactivation of an amoebic cyst. Environmental Technology, 1983. 4(8): p. 335 – 342.
82. Thurston-Enriquez, J.A., et al., Inactivation of enteric Adenovirus and feline Calicivirus by chlorine dioxide. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005. 71(6): p. 3100-3105.

The above was published four years ago. In the current Global environment – ANCIENT. I found it after a five minute Google Search. Just what do the MoH Drinking Water staff and their minions do?

55/     The pure science. Click here to study this 2012 paper from (sigh) Montana State University. The MoH should employ MSU graduates today – and fly them to NZ tomorrow. Enlightenment would ensue.

Click on the image to read this amazing report

Chances are – if you are a NZ pig – your drinking water is disinfected using choline dioxide. “An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”

Chances are – the sandwich you purchased at the NZ airport – had every component disinfected using chlorine dioxide.

Chances are – if you are a NZ chicken – your drinking water is disinfected using choline dioxide.“An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”

56/    Chicane #7

Should the monitoring test be negative – disinfection (chlorination) is required

How many earthquake reticulation repairs? Monitoring? Disinfection? I was not there. I have no idea.

57/    Chicane #8

I have no idea. Maybe my readers may know. As for me – I will just keep watching John Cleese – and reading Socrates twice per day. The DWSNZ 2005, introduced as law whilst the mayor of Christchurch was a voting MP – is quite clear about this matter. It is only common sense. A lot of fractured water pipes ran near fractured sewer pipes. And what about the workers hands?

The DWSNZ 2008 (updated to include later 2015 FULL Compliance date) – IS LAW. Simple.

58/   Chicane #9

Maybe the incorrect disinfectant is being used to control the biofilm – at elevated “swimming pools” (media reports) level. Do they know that there is better alternative? If not – why not? David Ogilvie – I did my best to deal with this matter in a pleasant manner – over a three year period. I have the correspondence on file.

The same old familiar faces rearranging their chairs (jobs) – and heading towards another Havelock North type disaster – using Water Disinfection FIRST INTRODUCED as the Titanic went down.  Further disasters will occur because they ignore all of the ‘new’ difficult-to-kill critters introduced into NZ in the last half century – and think that Biofilm is just surface ‘slime’. Which brings me to………….

Here are two NEW difficult-to-kill (with chlorine) New Zealand infectious microbes. Click the image to read how bad they are. Scroll down to the EPA table – 21st century chlorine dioxide  disinfectant kills them.

59/    Just in case you need to go to SpecSavers – I repeat – 21st century Chlorine Dioxide kills Cryptosporidium and Guardia. Stone dead.

60/    For those who cling to 20th century chlorine disinfection – Cryptosporidium and Guardia must be filtered out. These filters are expensive. Great for business! Esculate the ‘sales’ volume>>>>>>>>>$$$$$$$$$$$. Bring on the ‘gold-rush’.

Just another capital item to go wrong – and require needless maintenance. $$$$$$. The ABWSS Inc has two written quotes. $22,000. and $4,000. Do you detect a rip-off? Do NOT ask me about the cost of the pumps and control gear. $$$$$$ – “Let’s ignore the 21st century chlorine dioxide – the business cashflow destroyer.” (Resulting in cheaper safer reliable disinfected water for the drinker – but then – who is  really worried about the drinker?) Which brings me to the following article relating to CONFLICT-OF-INTEREST

61/   Which brings me to the following article relating to CONFLICT-OF-INTEREST

“An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”

Which brings me to – Click on the image to read the article. Garry Moore and I have arrived at the same point-of-view – at the same time. Where are the Police? Sirens. We need to hear the sirens.

62/   I am getting a feeling-of-justifiable unease. I ask you my reader to consider this question. Why did the requested face-to-face meeting arranged to take place between David Ogilvie (20th century Chlorine sell-out) and Warwick Ivory (21st century Chlorine dioxide National Treasure) – through Sonya Briggs (top executive water manager for Nelson Marlborough) – never happen? I waited three years plus! Was there an industry-friendly anti-chlorine-dioxide-agenda within the MoH all along? Where is the distance between Government Drinking Water Regulators and Private Water Construction industry? I am disgusted. Is such apparent misuse of Government Ministry Office power legal?

63/    Water New Zealand – Where is your science? All that we get is ‘expert’ name-dropping. Where is the science? Socrates needs to know.

64/   Chicane#10

Cancer inducing Chlorine-to-organic-matter by product! Click the image to access the EPA report. Do we need a name change to Ministry of Illness? MoI. Nice!

Chlorine Dioxide produces zero carcinogenic by products.

Was this ever about disinfectant performance?
Something smells. I am sort-of developing a feeling that I have maybe unearthed something resembling huge systemic activity that could maybe possibly resemble something of a criminal nature.
None of which delivers safer drinking water – e.g. Saves lives. The  DWSNZ are LAW. The DWSNZ Guidelines are to assist with the application of that Law. A huge scientific gulf exists between the contents of those documents.
Do we need to find the services of a Community-Minded Queens Council? The Minister of Health has the full history of my four year contact with Sonya Briggs. The Minister knows that I will supply the (triple backed-up) email strings upon request. The Minister needs to ask – under oath: –
  • Did Sonya Briggs ever request the meeting between David and Warwick?
  • How many times over the three year period did David Ogilvie refuse to attend?
  • If so – what reasons were supplied by David Ogilvie not-to-attend?
  • Why – for almost 12 months – did Sonya Briggs ignore Warwick Ivory’s requests for a meeting?
  • Why was I never updated? The silence alone was almost criminal. The last email I sent to Sonya was asking her advise – how to lodge a complaint. About a year ago. Silence silence silence.
  • Why does Helen Beaumont mention UV and Ozone disinfectants – and completely exclude the forth DWSNZ disinfectant – chlorine dioxide – in this article. What is the name of the Water NZ source of Helen Beaumont’s unbalanced Drinking Water knowledge? Helen is totally dependent on Water NZ guidance because……. Clearly Helen does NOT come from a Drinking Water background – her  earlier C.C.C. task was this
  • Is the Water NZ ‘advise’ based on this? “Other oxidising biocides have the potential for use in cooling tower systems but have been used to a very limited extent. One example is chlorine dioxide. The technical difficulties associated with its production and control on-site are factors which restrict its use.” From the DWSNZ 2012 Guidelines – to misery.
  • Was there an agenda? An agenda against a wonderfully superb 21st century disinfectant.  An agenda NOT based on 21st century Drinking Water science. Maybe chlorine dioxide disinfection  is too affordable and too simple to operate.
    “An Orchestrated Litany of Omission?”


What ‘drinking water ‘experts’ actually understand – would reduce the smallest circle to the size of a pin head. Why I create this page – further motivated by two lost grandchildren.

Is this what the MoH Christchurch Hospital pipes looked like – as a result of  the nation-wide MoH Legislative authority – over all NZ Drinking Water? Click the image to watch the video.

65/   Footnote

Developing Countries following the World Health Organisation Drinking Water Disinfection practice, are well ahead of New Zealand. Drinking-Water-Wise – NZ is STILL in the mid 20th century – a ‘Developing-Country’. Thanks to David Ogilvie and his MoH mates and minions.)

  1. Developing countries dose chlorine dioxide as a pre-oxidant – just before the water enters storage. Where the Ct value will be high – and manganese, organic brackishness, legionella, cryptosporidium and many protozoa’s are dispatched. The full ‘kill’ list is huge.
  2. Developing countries dose chlorine (at quite low levels) as the water exits storage and enters the reticulation (previously cleaned of biofilm using chlorine dioxide).
  3. Properly used – chlorine  and FAC are absolutely marvellous – but chlorine dioxide gas is not effected by temperature, pH or much else. Combine both disinfectants  – results in.
  4. Serendipity.
  5. The booming ‘Air Freshener’ industry goes bust.

The lower the number – the stronger the disinfectant. Perfect for the above mentioned pre-oxidation – then into storage with high Ct Value = Broad spectrum biocide utopia untouched by chlorine. (Source US EPA)

Chlorine Dioxide – The strong Oxidisation Capacity kills more critters – and is easier on the environment. (Source US EPA)

66/   I believe that NZ Drinking Water should be as safe to consume as NZ Food. Where is the historic equality of prosecution?

67/   Why are food manufacturers charged with ‘homicide’? Why are numerous Drinking Water ‘homicides’ ignored?

A Kiwi Mussels customer was infected with listeria and her unborn twins were lost. Where are the Police and ‘Health Dept’ now? Drinking Water ‘homicides’ exist – including worse instances than the Kiwi Mussels ‘crime’ listed above.  Gary Phillips and John Turner set up their plant in the vacant (Rai Valley Cheese – yum) cheese factory. Despite conventional ‘washing’ and steam cleaning, the concrete walls remained infected with listeria biofilm. As they would. Globally – the research needed to save those twins – had just begun –  ‘One notable effort was the establishment in 1990 by the National Science Foundation of an Engineering Research Center under the direction of biofilm research pioneer William Charaklis dedicated to the study of biofilms at Montana State University in the United States.’ There have been similar drinking water induced ‘homicides’ close to my home. Very close to my home. Needless loss of life nationally – confirmed-as-fact within the Havelock North Drinking Water Final Report

There are internet references to court appearances that suggest John Turner and Gary Phillips were still fighting the charges – two years later. Their only crime was that they did not wash the cheese factory walls with ZEROBAC®.  Their legal defence could have been very simple – because they did nothing wrong. NOTHING! In 1993 the 21st century ZEROBAC food-factory disinfectant had yet to be invented.  Plus – Biofilm resistance to conventional-concrete-wall-cleaning had yet to be fully understood. The timing of biofilm research is made very clear here.

The REQUIRED much-needed flat-surface biofilm disinfectant ZEROBAC was developed about 2005 – because of food industry demand

The village of Rai Valley has never recovered.

68/    Click here to go to my Drinkable Water page. Scroll down to ‘Anakiwa Experience’. Was it an accident? Was it vandalism? Was it someone taking All Practicable Steps? No – it was the MoH, and their unresponsive minions asleep at the wheel. With those responsible actually shielded by the Nelson Marlborough District Health Board – Public Health Service ‘Facilitator’ – Rica Salamat. (on file)

Personal message to the Minister of Health. In order to fully appreciate the findings of the Havelock North Drinking Water Inquiry Final Report – how bad the situation really has been is – request from myself – and ABWSS Inc Chairman – the full email correspondence – between the ABWSS Inc secretary / chairman and the Nelson Marlborough District Health Board – Public Health Service person-who-turned-up-to-work – Rica Salamat. Truly unbelievable! The aggressive erratic behaviour was intended to conceal zero actual knowledge base of Drinking Water. The misery she generated was extreme. The lives she saved were zero. The illness she prevented -10. She created illness.

Until three years ago Drinking Water suppliers ONLY had to prove “Take All Practicable Steps” – as a defence. Since the DWSNZ became fully operative three years ago, the full force of the law applies. No if’s. No but’s. Where are the Police? (Forget the MoH and their minions – being Monopoly players – their ineffective. non-communicative  drinking water staff should ‘Go Straight to Jail’.)

Call the tenders now. New Zealand needs another 1000 prison beds. Sirens. We need to hear the sirens.

Am I being ‘unfair’ to these poor ‘picked-on’, arrogant, acumen-devoid, hostile-when-cornered, non-communicative, inept, unschooled, 21st century untrained, (I have the supporting correspondence on file) MoH (Plus Minions) Drinking Water fools? No. Look at this lovely photo of my birthplace – Christchurch Hospital.

Here we see a MoH hospital – in which the Intensive Care patients drink bottled water. Because the reticulation is delivering infected unsafe water. Biofilm? Click here to see what the hospital pipes probably looked like. Read about this Oxymoronish (new word) disaster by clicking here!  Need I say more……….This would have to be an ultra-extreme case of the Dunning Kruger Effect. Click here for the full explanation!

Only Biofilm critters were intended to be harmed – or have their feelings hurt – during the creation of this page. This page is intended to wipe out the booming ‘Air Freshener’ industry. And seriously wipe out reduce toilet tissue sales by at least 50% 85%.

Did you know that the plaque on your teeth is ‘microbe-city’ – the very first Biofilm EVER discovered in 1684 by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.

“If you do not study the biofilm – you are stuffed”  (Grahame Sisson)
The fact that recognition of the importance of the biofilm phenomenon is so recent continues to have ramifications on education, health, and industry. Biofilm topics are still rarely covered in key university curricula, such as microbiology, biology, environmental science, health, medicine, and dentistry. (Montana University)
Of particular interest to the Minister of Health – The true source of catheter infection. And some ‘Super-bug’ resistance – read the developing scientific discovery here – at Sisson Kayaks.
Final word on a 2017 medical biofilm breakthrough

How I discovered biofilm

  • I observed slime whilst repairing ABWSS Inc pipes
  • My mentor confirmed that this slime could re-infect disinfected water
  • I met with – and listened too – NZ’s leading authority on biofilm – Warwick Ivory
  • I hit the Google-Search function – hard
  • I discovered the Montana State University (MSU) – NZ needs to set up a new Government Ministry. The Ministry for Drinking Water (MfDW) The MfDW should urgently employ a chartered plane load of MSU graduates. With urgency. Warwick Ivory should be a paid WfDW consultant.
  • In light of 2018 biofilm research (far from complete), John Turner and Gary Phillips have a case for wrongful charges laid. And significant damages for the loss of their business.

Posted in: News


Contact Grahame

For all enquiries and orders please contact me directly:

Phone: 027 2755 499


Phone: 027 2755 499Email:

© 2023 Sisson Kayaks.